Influence of the addition of LPG-reformate and H2 on an engine dually fuelled with LPG–diesel, –RME and –GTL Fuels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Colleges, School and Institutes


Dual fuel compression ignition engine has been proposed as one approach to reduce diesel engine regulated emissions (NOX and Soot) and to also allow the utilisation of other non-traditional fuels in transportation, in order to improve fuel security and CO2 emissions. In an attempt to improve the combustion characteristics of the LPG–diesel dual fuelled engine the influence of the (a) hydrogen and reformate (H2 and CO) additions and (b) properties of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, in this case diesel, biodiesel and synthetic diesel fuel were investigated.

Improvements on engine thermal efficiency and HC (including particular HC species) emissions with the reformate and further improvements on CO, soot and particulate matter with hydrogen with respect to LPG–diesel dual fuel combustion were obtained. However, an increase in NOX was obtained due to the high in-cylinder temperature as a result of the shorter advanced premixed combustion. Moreover, the RME’s oxygen content, different injection (i.e. different high bulk modulus) and combustion characteristics as a result of its properties modified the combustion process and hence produced even lower HC, CO, soot and PM emissions. On the other hand, the lower density of GTL has changed the diesel fuel injection and combustion characteristics in dual fuelling mode which resulted in the increased regulated (HC and CO) and unregulated emissions. However, LPG–GTL dual fuelling with reformate and H2 addition showed better smoke-NOX trade-off compared to that of ULSD and RME.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-82
Early online date7 Nov 2013
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2014


  • LPG, Dual fuel, Hydrogen, RME, GTL