Inflammation and the risk of atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • Daniele Pastori
  • Kazuo Miyazawa
  • Yanguang Li
  • Hussein Hado

Colleges, School and Institutes


Introduction Atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) are associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism. The characteristics of ‘real world’ patients developing AHREs are poorly known. Methods We included 496 consecutive patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Primary endpoint was occurrence of AHREs, defined as > 175 bpm and lasting > 5 min, in a median follow-up of 16.5 (IQR 3.9–38.6) months (1082.4 patient-years). We also tested the predictive value of clinical risk scores for AHREs. Results Mean age was 68.8 ± 14.0 years, and 35.5% were women; AHREs were recorded in 173 patients [34.7%, 16.0%/year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7–18.6]. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.020, 95% CI 1.004–1.035, p = 0.011], prior AF (HR 3.521, 95% CI 2.831–5.206, p < 0.001), white cell count (HR 1.039, 95% CI 1.007–1.072, p = 0.016) and high C reactive protein (CRP; HR 1.039, 95% CI 1.021–2.056, p = 0.038) were independently associated with AHREs. ROC curve analysis showed that the APPLE score (C statistic 0.53, 95% CI 0.48–0.59; p = 0.296) ALARMEc score (C statistic 0.51, 95% CI 0.44–0.57; p = 0.810) were non-significantly associated with AHRE. Similar results were obtained for CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc score Conclusion AHREs are common in CIEDs patients, with age, prior AF, inflammatory markers (high CRP, white cell count) being factors associated with AHREs onset. Clinical risk scores showed limited value for AHREs prediction in this cohort.


Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Research in Cardiology
Early online date17 Apr 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Apr 2018