Independent co-delivery of model actives with different degrees of hydrophilicity from oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions stabilised by solid lipid particles via a Pickering mechanism: a-proof-of-principle study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Colleges, School and Institutes


Hypothesis: The development of vehicles for the co-encapsulation of actives with diverse characteristics and their subsequent controllable co-delivery is gaining increasing research interest. Predominantly centred around pharmaceutical applications, the majority of such co-delivery approaches have been focusing on solid formulations and less so on liquid-based systems. Simple emulsions can be designed to offer a liquid-based microstructural platform for the compartmentalised multi-delivery of actives. Experiments: In this work, solid lipid nanoparticle stabilised Pickering emulsions were used for the co-encapsulation/co-delivery of two model actives with different degrees of hydrophilicity. Lipid particles containing a model hydrophobic active were prepared in the presence of either Tween 20 or whey protein isolate, and were then used to stabilise water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions, containing a secondary model active within their dispersed phase. Findings: Solid lipid nanoparticles prepared with either type of emulsifier were able to provide stable emulsions. Release kinetic data fitting revealed that different co-delivery profiles can be achieved by controlling the surface properties of the lipid nanoparticles. The current proof-of-principle study presents preliminary data that confirm the potential of this approach to be utilised as a flexible liquid-based platform for the segregated co-encapsulation and independent co-release of different combinations of actives, either hydrophobic/hydrophilic or hydrophobic/hydrophobic, with diverse release profiles.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the Engineering and Physical Research Council (EPSRC, UK - Grant Number EP/L015153/1), Innovate UK (UK - Grant Number 100870) and Syngenta for funding the work presented here. The authors would also like to thank Pat Mulqueen at Syngenta (Jealott's Hill International Research Centre) for useful discussions.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)644-649
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Colloid and Interface Science
Early online date9 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Co-delivery, Co-encapsulation, Hydrophobic or hydrophilic actives, Pickering stabilisation, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Water–in–oil or oil-in-water emulsions