Implementing superhydrophobic surfaces within various condensation environments: a review

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Colleges, School and Institutes


Steam condensation is omnipresent, and inevitable in many industrial processes. A classic example is seen within condensers that are used to liquify various gasses. In consequence, water‐vapor is eventually deposited upon the exterior of heat pipes that passively cool the gas to form a thin film of liquid. This macroscopic film is responsible for the degradation of heat transfer efficiencies. Liquid repellent surfaces can microscopically manipulate the hydrodynamics of formulating condensate to transition toward dropwise/jumping‐droplet condensation. This effect will save operating and maintenance costs of steam condensers within power‐plants, subsequently reducing emissions, operating power, and fuel consumption. However, the challenges associated with the stabilization of dropwise/jumping‐droplet condensation, especially at large subcooling temperatures and high supersaturation ratios, have prohibited the use of liquid repellent surfaces. This review aims to discuss recent improvements and understanding of dropwise/jumping‐droplet condensation surfaces on superhydrophobic surfaces. Numerous examples shall be included, showing experimental and numerical studies of various innovative properties of superhydrophobic structures. In addition, various fabrication techniques of superhydrophobic surfaces that are applicable within industrial systems are discussed. These topics are consolidated to provide guidelines for future research into dropwise/jumping‐droplet condensation on liquid repellent surfaces.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: N.S.S. wishes to thank the School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, for providing scholarship funding for his Ph.D. project.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2001442
JournalAdvanced Materials Interfaces
Issue number2
Early online date19 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2021


  • condensers, dropwise condensation, fabrication techniques, heat transfer, superhydrophobic surfaces