Impact of long-term care facility residence on the antibiotic resistance of urinary tract Escherichia coli and Klebsiella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Alicia Rosello
  • Andrew C. Hayward
  • Susan Hopkins
  • Carolyne Horner
  • Dean Ironmonger
  • Sarah R Deeny

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Public Health England, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Public Health Laboratory, Bordesley Green E, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK.
  • Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research
  • Public Health England


Background: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are thought to be important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria; however, there is no routine surveillance of resistance in LTCF residents, or large population-based studies comparing AMR in LTCFs with the community, so the relative burden of AMR in LTCFs remains unknown.

Objectives: To compare the frequency of antibiotic resistance of urinary tract bacteria from residents of LTCFs for the elderly and adults aged 70 years or older living in the community.

Methods: Positive urine specimens reported to any diagnostic microbiology laboratory in the West Midlands region (England) from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014 collected from individuals aged 70 years or older were analysed. The resistance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella to trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, third-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin and the rate of laboratory-confirmed E. coli and Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI) were assessed in LTCF residents and in the community.

Results: LTCF residents had a laboratory-confirmed E. coli and Klebsiella UTI rate of 21 per 100 person years compared with 8 per 100 person years in the elderly living in the community [rate ratio (RR)=2.66, 95% CI = 2.58-2.73] and a higher rate of developing E. coli and Klebsiella UTIs caused by bacteria resistant to trimethoprim (RR = 4.41, 95% CI = 4.25-4.57), nitrofurantoin (RR = 4.38, 95% CI = 3.98-4.83), ciprofloxacin (RR = 5.18, 95% CI = 4.82-5.57) and third-generation cephalosporins (RR = 4.49, 95% CI = 4.08-4.94).

Conclusions: Residents of LTCFs for the elderly had more than double the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella UTI and more than four times the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella UTI caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with those living in the community.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1184-1192
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2017


  • Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Disease Reservoirs/microbiology, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, England/epidemiology, Escherichia coli/drug effects, Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy, Female, Humans, Klebsiella/drug effects, Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy, Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects, Long-Term Care, Male, Residential Facilities, Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy, Urine/microbiology