Immunological mechanisms underpinning faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

External organisations

  • Centre for Liver and Gastroenterology Research, NIHR Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
  • Department of Gastroenterology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
  • University of Birmingham Microbiome Treatment Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address: m.n.quraishi@bham.ac.uk.
  • Liver Transplant and Hepatobiliary Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disease that results from a dysregulated immune response against specific environmental triggers in a genetically predisposed individual. Increasing evidence has indicated a causal role for changes in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) contributing to this immune-mediated intestinal inflammation. These mechanisms involve dysregulation of multiple facets of the host immune pathways that are potentially reversible. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the transfer of processed stool from a healthy donor into an individual with an illness. FMT has shown promising results in both animal model experiments and clinical studies in IBD in the resolution of intestinal inflammation. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. Insights from these studies have shown interactions between modulation of dysbiosis via changes in abundances of specific members of the gut microbial community and changes in host immunological pathways. Unravelling these causal relationships has promising potential for a translational therapy role to develop targeted microbial therapies and understand the mechanisms that underpin IBD aetiopathogenesis. In this review, we discuss current evidence for the contribution of gut microbiota in the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis and immunoregulatory mechanisms that are associated with the resolution of inflammation through FMT in IBD.

Bibliographic note

© 2019 British Society for Immunology.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-38
Number of pages15
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Volume199
Issue number1
Early online date27 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Keywords

  • faecal microbiota transplantation, immunology, inflammatory bowel disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas