Immunobiological effects of gemcitabine and capecitabine combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Authors

  • William Greenhalf
  • Eithne Costello
  • Victoria E Shaw
  • Trevor Cox
  • Paula Ghaneh
  • Daniel H Palmer
  • John Neoptolemos

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Liverpool

Abstract

Background: Preclinical studies suggest that chemotherapy may enhance the immune response against pancreatic cancer.
Methods: The levels of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the associated inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in 38 patients receiving gemcitabine and capecitabine combination chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer within the TeloVac trial. Apoptosis (M30) and total immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity and/or T-cell response) were also assessed and levels of apoptosis induction correlated with immune response. The telomerase GV1001 vaccine was given either sequentially (n=18) or concomitantly (n=24) with the combination chemotherapy.
Results: There were no differences between baseline and post-treatment levels of CRP (P=0.19), IL-6 (P=0.19) and GM-CSF (P=0.71). There was a positive correlation between post-chemotherapy CRP and IL-6 levels (r=0.45, P=0.005) and between CRP with carbohydrate antigen-19-9 (CA19-9) levels at baseline (r=0.45, P=0.015) and post treatment (r=0.40, P=0.015). The change in CRP and IL-6 levels was positively correlated (r=0.40, P=0.012). Hazard ratios (95% CI) for baseline CA19-9 (1.30 (1.07–1.59), P=0.009) and CRP (1.55 (1.00–2.39), P=0.049) levels were each independently predictive of survival. The M30 mean matched differences between pre- and post-chemotherapy showed evidence of apoptosis in both the sequential (P=0.058) and concurrent (P=0.0018) chemoimmunotherapy arms. Respectively, 5 of 10 and 9 of 20 patients had a positive immune response but there was no association with apoptosis.
Conclusions: Combination gemcitabine and capecitabine chemotherapy did not affect circulating levels of GM-CSF, IL-6 and CRP. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis was not associated with the immunogenicity induced by the GV1001 vaccine in advanced pancreatic cancer.

Details

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Early online date4 Feb 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Feb 2016

Keywords

  • pancreatic adenocarcinoma, chemotherapy, inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, immunogenicity