Imaging of dairy emulsions: Via a novel approach of transmission electron cryogenic microscopy using beam exposure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Kilian Daffner
  • Eric Hanssen
  • Lydia Ong
  • Sally L. Gras

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute
  • University of Melbourne


Emulsions containing small fat and protein particles are difficult to differentiate but low dose transmission electron cryogenic microscopy can visualize and distinguish between these droplets or particles. A controlled increase in electron dose caused the sample to bubble and visibly degrade at <25 e- Å-2 for fat globules and at >150 e- Å-2 for protein particles, allowing particle differentiation. This technique may be useful for the development of nanoemulsions, as well as nanostructured and 3D printed foods.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: This research was supported by the Australian Research Council’s Industrial Transformation Research Program (ITRP) funding scheme (project number IH120100005) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [grant number EP/ N024818/1]. The authors would like to thank The Bio21 Molecular Science & Biotechnology Institute at The University of Melbourne for access to equipment. The cryo EM analysis was carried out at the Bio 21 Advanced Microscopy Facility, at The University of Melbourne. We acknowledge Unternehmensgruppe Theo Mueller for gifting the protein powders. The authors would like to thank Eddie Pelan and Fotis Spyropoulos for useful discussions and proofreading. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7888-7892
Number of pages5
JournalSoft Matter
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sep 2020