High community faecal carriage rates of CTX-M ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in a specific population group in Birmingham, UK

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • NH Wickramasinghe
  • Li McCrae
  • A Eustace
  • Shazia Shabir
  • T Saluja

Colleges, School and Institutes


To determine the proportion of E. coli carrying specific CTX-M extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) genotypes in a community population of East and North Birmingham. General practice and outpatient stool samples from 732 individuals submitted for examination for faecal pathogens in 2010 were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli using chromogenic agar. Multiplex PCR, denaturing HPLC, DNA sequencing and PFGE were used to determine the CTX-M genotype and clonal subtype. Isolates from people were assigned to oEurope', oMiddle East/South Asia' (MESA) or ouncategorized' groups using software to determine probable global origin based on the subjects full name. Prevalence of CTX-M carriage in the sample population was 11.3. There was a statistically significant difference (P0.001) between carriage in the Europe group (8.1) and the MESA group (22.8). There was also a higher rate of carriage of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli (P0.001) in MESA subjects. The high community carriage rate and the significant difference in carriage between the Europe and MESA subjects may have important consequences for therapy. If the rising trend in carriage of bacteria producing ESBLs continues, guidelines for empirical therapy for patients presenting from the community may need to be modified. The findings also raise the concern that the pattern and routes of spread of CTX-M-15 may be replicated in the future by broader-spectrum -lactamases, such as New Delhi metallo--lactamase (oNDM-1').


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1108-1113
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012


  • CTX-M-15, ST131, clonal spread, ethnicity