Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene packaging: A downside of recycling?

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Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene packaging: A downside of recycling? / Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Sharkey, Martin; Berresheim, Harald; Harrad, Stuart.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 199, 05.2018, p. 612-616.

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@article{e217179325c14615825179cec0eb6cc7,
title = "Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene packaging:: A downside of recycling?",
abstract = "While there are no regulatory fire safety obligations for polystyrene (PS) when used as packaging material, concerns exist that such packaging material may contain the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) as a result of uncontrolled recycling activities. To evaluate these concerns, we collected 50 samples of PS packaging materials from the UK and 20 from Ireland. HBCDD was detected in 63 (90%) of samples, with concentrations in 4 samples from Ireland exceeding the EU's low POP concentration limit (LPCL) of 0.1% above which articles may not be recycled. Moreover, 2 further samples contained HBCDD >0.01%. While our samples were obtained in the 12 month period prior to the March 2016 introduction of the EU's 0.01% concentration limit above which articles may not be placed on the market, our data suggest that continued monitoring is required to assess compliance with this limit value. Ratios of α vs. γ-HBCDD in our EPS packaging samples (average = 0.63) exceeded significantly (p = 0.025) those in EPS building insulation material samples (average = 0.24) reported previously for Ireland. This shift towards α-HBCDD in packaging EPS is consistent with the additional thermal processing experienced by recycled PS and suggests the source of HBCDD in PS packaging is recycled PS insulation foam. This is of concern owing to the higher bioavailability and lower metabolic clearance of α-HBCDD compared to the β- and γ-isomers.",
keywords = "HBCDD , Flame retardants , unintentional contaminants , recycled plastics , EPS , XPS",
author = "Abdallah, {Mohamed Abou-Elwafa} and Martin Sharkey and Harald Berresheim and Stuart Harrad",
note = "Copyright {\textcopyright} 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2018",
month = may,
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.084",
language = "English",
volume = "199",
pages = "612--616",
journal = "Chemosphere",
issn = "0045-6535",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene packaging:

T2 - A downside of recycling?

AU - Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa

AU - Sharkey, Martin

AU - Berresheim, Harald

AU - Harrad, Stuart

N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2018/5

Y1 - 2018/5

N2 - While there are no regulatory fire safety obligations for polystyrene (PS) when used as packaging material, concerns exist that such packaging material may contain the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) as a result of uncontrolled recycling activities. To evaluate these concerns, we collected 50 samples of PS packaging materials from the UK and 20 from Ireland. HBCDD was detected in 63 (90%) of samples, with concentrations in 4 samples from Ireland exceeding the EU's low POP concentration limit (LPCL) of 0.1% above which articles may not be recycled. Moreover, 2 further samples contained HBCDD >0.01%. While our samples were obtained in the 12 month period prior to the March 2016 introduction of the EU's 0.01% concentration limit above which articles may not be placed on the market, our data suggest that continued monitoring is required to assess compliance with this limit value. Ratios of α vs. γ-HBCDD in our EPS packaging samples (average = 0.63) exceeded significantly (p = 0.025) those in EPS building insulation material samples (average = 0.24) reported previously for Ireland. This shift towards α-HBCDD in packaging EPS is consistent with the additional thermal processing experienced by recycled PS and suggests the source of HBCDD in PS packaging is recycled PS insulation foam. This is of concern owing to the higher bioavailability and lower metabolic clearance of α-HBCDD compared to the β- and γ-isomers.

AB - While there are no regulatory fire safety obligations for polystyrene (PS) when used as packaging material, concerns exist that such packaging material may contain the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) as a result of uncontrolled recycling activities. To evaluate these concerns, we collected 50 samples of PS packaging materials from the UK and 20 from Ireland. HBCDD was detected in 63 (90%) of samples, with concentrations in 4 samples from Ireland exceeding the EU's low POP concentration limit (LPCL) of 0.1% above which articles may not be recycled. Moreover, 2 further samples contained HBCDD >0.01%. While our samples were obtained in the 12 month period prior to the March 2016 introduction of the EU's 0.01% concentration limit above which articles may not be placed on the market, our data suggest that continued monitoring is required to assess compliance with this limit value. Ratios of α vs. γ-HBCDD in our EPS packaging samples (average = 0.63) exceeded significantly (p = 0.025) those in EPS building insulation material samples (average = 0.24) reported previously for Ireland. This shift towards α-HBCDD in packaging EPS is consistent with the additional thermal processing experienced by recycled PS and suggests the source of HBCDD in PS packaging is recycled PS insulation foam. This is of concern owing to the higher bioavailability and lower metabolic clearance of α-HBCDD compared to the β- and γ-isomers.

KW - HBCDD

KW - Flame retardants

KW - unintentional contaminants

KW - recycled plastics

KW - EPS

KW - XPS

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.084

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.084

M3 - Article

C2 - 29459351

VL - 199

SP - 612

EP - 616

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

ER -