Global optimization of microwave filters based on a surrogate model-assisted evolutionary algorithm

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Local optimization is a routine approach for full-wave optimization of microwave filters. For filter optimization problems with numerous local optima or where the initial design is not near to the optimal region, the success rate of the routine method may not be high. Traditional global optimization techniques have a high success rate for such problems, but are often prohibitively computationally expensive considering the cost of full-wave electromagnetic simulations. To address the above challenge, a new method, called surrogate model-assisted evolutionary algorithm for filter optimization (SMEAFO), is proposed. In SMEAFO, considering the characteristics of filter design landscapes, Gaussian process surrogate modeling, differential evolution operators, and Gaussian local search are organized in a particular way to balance the exploration ability and the surrogate model quality, so as to obtain high-quality results in an efficient manner. The performance of SMEAFO is demonstrated by two real-world design cases (a waveguide filter and a microstrip filter), which do not appear to be solvable by popular local optimization techniques. Experiments show that SMEAFO obtains high-quality designs comparable with global optimization techniques but within a reasonable amount of time. Moreover, SMEAFO is not restricted by certain types of filters or responses. The SMEAFO-based filter design optimization tool can be downloaded from


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1976-1985
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number6
Early online date2 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


  • Optimization, Computational modeling, Mathematical model, Sociology, Statistics, Microwave filters