Gaseous and particulate matter emissions of biofuel blends in dual-injection compared to direct-injection and port injection

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To meet the needs of fuel security and combat the growing concerns of CO2 emissions, the automotive industry is seeking solutions through biofuels. Traditionally, when supplying biofuel blends to the combustion chamber, the blend is mixed externally prior to its injection in one location. This location occurs either before the cylinder (port-fuel injection, PFI), or directly into the cylinder (direct-injection, DI). However, the use of dual-injection allows the in-cylinder blending of two fuels at any blend ratio, when combining the two locations (PFI and DI). This injection strategy offers increased flexibility as the blend ratio can be changed instantaneously according to engine speed and load demand and fuel availability. Previous work by the authors has reported the improved combustion performance of dual-injection with 25% blends (in gasoline) of a new biofuel candidate: 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF). This current investigation extends the analysis to include the gaseous emissions of various DMF blends (25%, 50% and 75%) from 3.5 bar to 8.5 bar IMEP and the particulate matter (PM) emissions of similar fraction ethanol blends at a selected condition of 5.5 bar IMEP. Compared to DI, dual-injection offers reduced CO and CO2 emissions and comparable HC emissions. The mean PM diameter is decreased and the accumulation mode particles are negligible compared to DI. However, the implication of the higher combustion pressures is an increase in NOx due to reduced charge-cooling.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-261
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date4 Feb 2013
Publication statusPublished - May 2013


  • Dual-injection, Direct-injection, 2,5-Dimethylfuran, Ethanol, Particulate Matter