From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Authors

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. athanasios.typas@ucsf.edu

Abstract

How bacteria grow and divide while retaining a defined shape is a fundamental question in microbiology, but technological advances are now driving a new understanding of how the shape-maintaining bacterial peptidoglycan sacculus grows. In this Review, we highlight the relationship between peptidoglycan synthesis complexes and cytoskeletal elements, as well as recent evidence that peptidoglycan growth is regulated from outside the sacculus in Gram-negative bacteria. We also discuss how growth of the sacculus is sensitive to mechanical force and nutritional status, and describe the roles of peptidoglycan hydrolases in generating cell shape and of D-amino acids in sacculus remodelling.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-36
Number of pages14
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Volume10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2011

Keywords

  • Amidohydrolases, Bacteria, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Wall, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Cytoskeleton, Endopeptidases, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Proteins, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Hydrolysis, N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase, Peptidoglycan, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review