Fractal Analysis: Prognostic Value of Left Ventricular Trabecular Complexity Cardiovascular MRI in Participants with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Yuancheng Li
  • Fuyao Yang
  • Laura Bravo
  • Ke Wan
  • Wei Cheng
  • Jiayu Sun
  • Yanjie Zhu
  • Tingxi Zhu
  • Yuchi Han
  • Yucheng Chen

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Sichuan University


Background The prognostic value of myocardial trabecular complexity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is unknown. Purpose To explore the prognostic value of myocardial trabecular complexity using fractal analysis in participants with HCM. Materials and Methods The authors prospectively enrolled participants with HCM who underwent 3.0-T cardiovascular MRI from August 2011 to October 2017. The authors also enrolled 100 age- and sex-matched healthy participants to form a comparison group. Trabeculae were quantified with fractal analysis of cine slices to estimate the fractal dimension (FD). Participants with HCM were divided into normal and high FD groups according to the upper limit of normal reference value from the healthy group. The primary end point was defined as all-cause mortality and aborted sudden cardiac death. The secondary end point was the composite of the primary end point and readmission to the hospital owing to heart failure. Internal validation was performed using the bootstrapping method. Results A total of 378 participants with HCM (median age, 50 years; age range, 40-61 years; 207 men) and 100 healthy participants (median age, 46 years; age range, 36-59 years; 55 women) were included in this study. During the median follow-up of 33 months ± 18 (standard deviation), the increased maximal apical FD (≥1.325) had a higher risk of the primary and secondary end points than those with a normal FD (<1.325) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). Furthermore, Cox analysis revealed that left ventricular maximal apical FD (hazard ratio range, 1.001-1.008; all P < .05) provided significant prognostic value to predict the primary and secondary end points after adjustment for the European Society of Cardiology predictors and late gadolinium enhancement. Internal validation showed that left ventricular maximal apical FD retained a good performance in predicting the primary end points with an area under the curve of 0.70 ± 0.03. Conclusion Left ventricular apical fractal dimension, which reflects myocardial trabecular complexity, was an independent predictor of the primary and secondary end points in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Captur and Moon in this issue.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202261
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Oct 2020