Firearms-related skeletal muscle trauma: pathophysiology and novel approaches for regeneration

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Authors

  • Anselmo Moriscot
  • Elen H Miyabara
  • Bruno Langeani
  • Stuart Egginton
  • T Scott Bowen

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Sao Paulo
  • Sou da Paz Institute
  • NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre
  • Leeds Liver Unit,, St James's University Hospital, Leeds.

Abstract

One major cause of traumatic injury is firearm-related wounds (i.e., ballistic trauma), common in both civilian and military populations, which is increasing in prevalence and has serious long-term health and socioeconomic consequences worldwide. Common primary injuries of ballistic trauma include soft-tissue damage and loss, haemorrhage, bone fracture, and pain. The majority of injuries are of musculoskeletal origin and located in the extremities, such that skeletal muscle offers a major therapeutic target to aid recovery and return to normal daily activities. However, the underlying pathophysiology of skeletal muscle ballistic trauma remains poorly understood, with limited evidence-based treatment options. As such, this review will address the topic of firearm-related skeletal muscle injury and regeneration. We first introduce trauma ballistics and the immediate injury of skeletal muscle, followed by detailed coverage of the underlying biological mechanisms involved in regulating skeletal muscle dysfunction following injury, with a specific focus on the processes of muscle regeneration, muscle wasting and vascular impairments. Finally, we evaluate novel approaches for minimising muscle damage and enhancing muscle regeneration after ballistic trauma, which may have important relevance for primary care in victims of violence.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
Number of pages17
Journalnpj Regenerative Medicine
Volume6
Issue number1
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Mar 2021