Fine wine or sour grapes? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of red wine polyphenols on vascular health

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Authors

External organisations

  • Diabetes and Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia.

Abstract

Purpose
Red wine polyphenols (RWP) are plant-based molecules that have been extensively studied in relation to their protective effects on vascular health in both animals and humans. The aim of this review was to quantify and compare the efficacy of RWP and pure resveratrol on outcomes measures of vascular health and function in both animals and humans.

Methods
Comprehensive database searches were carried out through PubMed, Web of Science and OVID for randomised, placebo-controlled studies in both animals and humans. Meta-analyses were carried out on acute and chronic studies of RWP in humans, alongside sub-group analysis where possible. Risk-of-bias assessment was carried out for all included studies based on randomisation, allocation, blinding, outcome data reporting, and other biases.

Results
48 animal and 37 human studies were included in data extraction following screening. Significant improvements in measures of blood pressure and vascular function following RWP were seen in 84% and 100% of animal studies, respectively. Human studies indicated significant improvements in systolic blood pressure overall (− 2.6 mmHg, 95% CI: [− 4.8, − 0.4]), with a greater improvement in pure-resveratrol studies alone (− 3.7 mmHg, 95% CI: [− 7.3, − 0.0]). No significant effects of RWP were seen in diastolic blood pressure or flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery.

Conclusion
RWP have the potential to improve vascular health in at risk human populations, particularly in regard to lowering systolic blood pressure; however, such benefits are not as prevalent as those observed in animal models.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages28
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Early online date17 Apr 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Apr 2020

Keywords

  • red wine, polyphenols, resveratrol, vascular health, blood pressure