Fat-Associated Lymphoid Clusters in Inflammation and Immunity

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Colleges, School and Institutes


Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are atypical lymphoid tissues that were originally identified in mouse and human mesenteries due to that they contain a high number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells/nuocytes/natural helper cells. FALCs are located on adipose tissues in mucosal surfaces such as the mediastinum, pericardium, and gonadal fat. Importantly, these clusters contain B1, B2 and T lymphocytes as well as myeloid and other innate immune cell populations. The developmental cues of FALC formation have started to emerge, showing that these clusters depend on a different set of molecules and cells than secondary lymphoid tissues for their formation. Here, we review the current knowledge on FALC formation, and we compare FALCs and omental milky spots and their responses to inflammation.


Original languageEnglish
Article number612
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2016