Expressive voting with booing and cheering: evidence from Britain

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  • University of Bath


Previous work on Expressive Voting has focused on the desire of voters to express what they are for and thus who they are. But, often also as important, is the desire of voters to express what they are against, and who they are not. In this paper we extend the standard formulation of Expressive Voting to account for this possibility. Using data for the UK we find empirical evidence that the desire to boo has been increasingly important at recent elections. The implications of this for recent trends in political polarization are discussed.

Bibliographic note

Publisher Copyright: © 2020


Original languageEnglish
Article number101956
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Political Economy
Early online date28 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • British politics, Expressive voting, Polarization