Exploring drug-related problems in diabetic patients during Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia: a mixed-methods study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Authors

  • Waleed Saleh Alluqmani
  • Mohammed Misri Alotaibi
  • Waleed Jamal Almalki
  • Abdulrahman Althaqafi
  • Hamed Abdullah Alawi
  • Fahad Althobiani
  • Amjad Abdullah Albishi
  • Amjad Ahmad Madkhali
  • Layal Yahia Baunes
  • Razan Ibrahim Alhazmi
  • Elaf Mohammed Doman
  • Anwar Hussain Alhazmi
  • Majid Ali

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. waleed9055@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. momsmf@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. ph.waleed.ja@gmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. abdulrhmanthaqafi@gmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. hamed234@windowslive.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. fahaddakilallh@gmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. ph-jad@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. ph.amjaad@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. laaayaly-2009@windowslive.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. razxhr@gmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. e_m_h_d@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. alhazmi.anwar.h@gmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. majid.ali@hotmail.com.
  • College of Pharmacy, Umm al-Qura University, Taif Road, Makkah 24381, Saudi Arabia. E.Cheema@bham.ac.uk.
  • Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. E.Cheema@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

This study aimed to identify any drug-related problems (DRPs) in diabetic patients during Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia. The study used a mixed-methods approach consisting of two phases and was conducted in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from December 2017 to March 2018. The first phase of the study involved qualitative semi-structured individual interviews with diabetic patients. A 13-item questionnaire was used in the second phase to further identify DRPs in the wider population. The data was mainly presented as frequencies and percentages. Inferential statistics was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 to compare relevant variables/questions using the chi-square test. Twenty patients (10 male, 10 female) attended face-to-face interviews during the first phase of the study while 95 (40 male, 55 female) completed the questionnaire in the second phase of the study. Two possible risk factors for DRPs were identified from the qualitative data: patient-related factors, including changes in their medicine intake during fasting, and healthcare professionals-related factors, including lack of advice from healthcare professionals regarding fasting. The quantitative results indicated that 52 (54%) of the 95 participants who observed fasting reported to have changed the way they were taking their medicines. Furthermore, 41% of the participants experienced general healthcare problems such as hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, fatigue, excessive sweating, and gastrointestinal disturbances. Healthcare professionals need to educate patients who are at risk of DRPs by providing structured education and counseling.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number499
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume16
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Ramadan, diabetes, fasting, medicines