Evaluation of contamination status and health risk assessment of essential and toxic metals in Cyprinus carpio from Mangla Lake, Pakistan

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  • Quaid-i-Azam University


Although fish as a diet has many health benefits, metal accumulation in fish has been an increasing public health concerns across the world. The Cyprinus carpio samples were collected from Mangla Lake, Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and analyzed for 18 essential and toxic trace metals. In edible muscles of the fish, average concentration (μg/g) of K (3002) was the highest, followed by Na (648), Ca (435), Mg (227), and Zn (161). Relatively lower levels (μg/g) were noted for Fe (16.9), Pb (6.05), Sr (4.01), Se (3.49), Co (2.90), Ni (2.37), Mn (2.29), As (1.48), and Cu (1.37), while least levels (μg/g) were found for Cr (0.61), Cd (0.52), Hg (0.15), and Li (0.09) in muscles. Majority of the metals revealed higher accumulation in gills compared with those in scales and muscles. Mean levels of Zn, Mn, Co, Pb, As, and Cd in Cyprinus carpio muscles were found to be exceeding most of the international permissible limits in muscles for safe human consumption. Estimated daily/weekly intakes and hazard quotients/index suggested a high risk related to the intake of Cyprinus carpio from Mangla Lake due to heavy metal contamination. Likewise, target cancer risk (TCR) also indicated significant lifetime carcinogenic health risks to the consumers.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: The research funding was awarded by Higher Education Commission (HEC) and Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, to carry out this project. Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature.


Original languageEnglish
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Early online date7 Jan 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jan 2021


  • Cancer risk, Cyprinus carpio, Hazard quotient, Mangla Lake, Metal contamination, Risk assessment