Equal opportunities and diversity: exploring the relevance of Le Grand's models of service provision

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes


The purpose of this article is to draw on Le Grand's (2007) model of service provision of ends and means (trust, targets, voice and choice) to critique the accepted frameworks for conceptualising the chronology of equal opportunities and diversity (EO&D) in the UK. We do this by reviewing the attempts to provide a chronological analysis before outlining and applying Le Grand's (2007) model. We find that the ‘eras’ of the chronologies give way to a much more complex and fluid picture. Moreover, focusing on ends and means highlights some major issues in the development of EO&D policy that needs to be addressed.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-505
Number of pages11
JournalSocial Policy and Society
Issue number4
Early online date27 Nov 2012
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


  • Le Grand, equal opportunities, diversity, models of service provision, ends, means