Emerging therapies and their delivery for treating age-related macular degeneration

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


  • Dawn A Sim
  • Wen Hwa Lee
  • Nada Alfahad
  • Andrew D Dick

External organisations

  • Action Against AMD
  • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London
  • University College London
  • University of Birmingham
  • University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
  • Birmingham Health Partners Centre for Regulatory Science and Innovation, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • Health Data Research UK
  • University of Bristol
  • University College London Hospitals


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world and is characterised in its latter stages by retinal cell death and neovascularisation and earlier stages with the loss of parainflammatory homeostasis. Patients with neovascular AMD (nAMD) are treated with frequent intraocular injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, which are not only unpopular with patients, but carry risks of sight-threatening complications. A minority of patients are unresponsive with no alternative treatment available and some patients who respond initially eventually develop a tolerance to treatment. New therapeutics with improved delivery methods and sustainability of clinical effects are required, in particular for non-neovascular AMD (90% of cases and no current approved treatments). There are age-related and disease-related changes that occur which can affect ocular drug delivery. Here, we review the latest emerging therapies for AMD, their delivery routes, and implications for translating to clinical practice.


Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Mar 2021


  • Age‐related macular degeneration, retina, drug delivery, immunotherapy, ocular disease, complement, anti‐VEGF