Elevated carbon dioxide changes grain protein concentration and composition and compromises baking quality. A FACE study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • J. F. Panozzo
  • C. K. Walker
  • D. L. Partington
  • N. C. Neumann
  • S. Seneweera
  • G. J. Fitzgerald

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Department of Environment and Primary Industries
  • University of Southern Queensland


Wheat is one of the major crops grown commercially and an important source of nutrition for humans. Changes in grain quality due to increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 could have far-reaching impacts to human diets globally. Future wheat-growing conditions are expected to be impacted by climate change, particularly increases in carbon dioxide. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) has been shown to increase plant growth and yield, yet changes in grain properties also affect product quality.Using Australian Grains Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE) technology we investigated the impacts of eCO2 on grain quality over three seasons.Elevated CO2 consistently decreased baking quality and grain protein percentage was consistently lower under eCO2, and protein composition changed towards a greater glutenin/gliadin ratio. Starch damage and amylograph peak viscosity were consistently reduced in the eCO2 treatment in all years and for all cultivars. For other traits such as grain weight, milling quality, dough rheology, A-type starch granules and pasting viscosity the same altered effects were not consistent for cultivar or over years. The results suggest that grain and product quality of wheat grown under eCO2 will be compromised in a high CO2 atmosphere, and this may offset some of the potential yield benefits of eCO2.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-470
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Issue number3
Early online date14 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014


  • Elevated carbon dioxide, FACE, Free air carbon dioxide enrichment, Wheat quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas