Electromagnetic propagation in four-layered media due to a vertical electric dipole : a clarification

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Colleges, School and Institutes


This communication presents a quasi-analytical method for predicting the electromagnetic propagation in four-layered media due to a vertical electric dipole. The method includes the components known as the direct, ideal reflected, lateral, and trapped surface waves. Previous literature, studying less complex geometries, is extensively reviewed and found to be incomplete and inaccurate in a number of places. These deficiencies are highlighted and the methodology is presented with enough detail to allow repetition of the results. Results are shown which approximate the scenario of a leaking water-pipe, buried in the shallow sub-surface. It is shown that the trapped surface wave does not dominate in this scenario. Furthermore, it is shown that the trapped surface wave magnitude is reduced when conductivity of the fourth layer is reduced, or when the third layer thickness is increased; these results fit the qualitative expectation based on previous results.


Original languageEnglish
Article number6991576
Pages (from-to)866-870
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number2
Early online date18 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2015


  • Dielectric waveguides, dipole antennas, electromagnetic propagation in absorbing media, surface waves