Effects of inulin propionate ester incorporated into palatable food products on appetite and resting energy expenditure: A randomised crossover study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Claire Byrne
  • Edward Chambers
  • Tom Preston
  • Catriona Tedford
  • Jerusa Brignardello
  • Isabel Garcia-Perez
  • Elain Holmes
  • Douglas Morrison
  • Gary Frost

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Imperial College London
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of the West of Scotland


Supplementation with inulin-propionate ester (IPE), which delivers propionate to the colon, suppresses ad libitum energy intake and stimulates the release of satiety hormones acutely in humans, and prevents weight gain. In order to determine whether IPE remains effective when incorporated into food products (FP), IPE needs to be added to a widely accepted food system. A bread roll and fruit smoothie were produced. Twenty-one healthy overweight and obese humans participated. Participants attended an acclimatisation visit and a control visit where they consumed un-supplemented food products (FP). Participants then consumed supplemented-FP, containing 10 g/d inulin or IPE for six days followed by a post-supplementation visit in a randomised crossover design. On study visits, supplemented-FP were consumed for the seventh time and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 420 min later. Blood samples were collected to assess hormones and metabolites. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Taste and appearance ratings were similar between FP. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different between treatments, due to a decreased intake following IPE-FP. These observations were not related to changes in blood hormones and metabolites. There was an increase in REE following IPE-FP. However, this effect was lost after correcting for changes in fat free mass. Our results suggest that IPE suppresses appetite and may alter REE following its incorporation into palatable food products.


Original languageEnglish
Article number861
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2019