Effects of elemental vaporization and condensation during heat treatment of single crystal superalloys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • H. Wang
  • N. D'Souza
  • Shixiang Zhao
  • D. Welton
  • R. C. Reed

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Oxford
  • Rolls Royce PLC
  • Loughborough University
  • University of Birmingham


Vaporization and subsequent condensation of Ni and Al is shown to play a dominant role in the evolution of microstructure during heat treatment of an Re-containing single crystal superalloy. Thus the traditional view that matter is not exchanged with the environment - so that the thermodynamic system is closed - is shown to be incorrect. The extent of depletion of Ni and Al alters the surface chemistry, causing formation of refractory-rich precipitates and destabilization of the matrix phase, γ.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-48
Number of pages4
JournalScripta Materialia
Publication statusPublished - May 2014


  • Heat treatment, Homogenization/solutioning, Nickel alloys, Recrystallization, Surface evaporation