Effects of eating with an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback on eating rate and body weight: a randomized controlled trial
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review
- Utrecht University of Applied Sciences
- Wageningen University
- VU University Amsterdam
- Maastricht University
- Radboud University
Background: Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation: people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. A high eating rate contributes to overeating and potentially to weight gain. Previous studies showed that an augmented fork that delivers real-time feedback on eating rate is a potentially effective intervention to decrease eating rate in naturalistic settings. This study assessed the impact of using the augmented fork during a 15-week period on eating rate and body weight.
Methods: In a parallel randomized controlled trial, 141 participants with overweight (age: 49.2 ± 12.3 y; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.48 kg/m2) were randomized to intervention groups (VFC, n = 51 or VFC+, n = 44) or control group (NFC, n = 46). First, we measured bite rate and success ratio on five consecutive days with the augmented fork without feedback (T1). The intervention groups (VFC, VFC+) then used the same fork, but now received vibrotactile feedback when they ate more than one bite per 10 s. Participants in VFC+ had additional access to a web portal with visual feedback. In the control group (NFC), participants ate with the fork without either feedback. The intervention period lasted four weeks, followed by a week of measurements only (T2) and another measurement week after eight weeks (T3). Body weight was assessed at T1, T2, and T3.
Results: Participants in VFC and VFC+ had a lower bite rate (p <.01) and higher success ratio (p <.0001) than those in NFC at T2. This effect persisted at T3. In both intervention groups participants lost more weight than those in the control group at T2 (p <.02), with no rebound at T3.
Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback is a viable tool to reduce eating rate in naturalistic settings. Further investigation may confirm that the augmented fork could support long-term weight loss strategies.
Trial registration: The research reported in this manuscript was registered on 4 November 2015 in the Netherlands Trial Register with number NL5432 (https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/5432).
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity|
|Early online date||22 Oct 2019|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 22 Oct 2019|
- Eating rate, Feedback, Randomized controlled trial, Sensory, Weight loss