Effect of position and exercise on measurement of muscle quantity and quality: towards a standardised pragmatic protocol for clinical practice
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Colleges, School and Institutes
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is an emerging non-invasive bedside tool for muscle quantity/quality assessment; Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an alternative non-invasive bedside measure of body composition, recommended for evaluation of sarcopenia in clinical practice. We set out to assess impact of position and exercise upon measures towards protocol standardisation.
METHODS: Healthy volunteers aged 18-35 were recruited. Bilateral Anterior Thigh Thickness (BATT; rectus femoris and vastus intermedius), BATT: Subcutaneous Ratio (BATT:SCR), and rectus femoris echogenicity were measured using ultrasound and BIA was performed; 1) lying with upper body at 45° (Reclined), 2) lying fully supine at 180o (Supine), 3) sat in a chair with upper body at 90o (Sitting), and 4) after exercise Reclined. Variability of Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM) by two different equations from BIA (SMM-Janssen, SMM-Sergi), phase angle, fat percentage, and total body (TBW), extracellular (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) were assessed.
RESULTS: Forty-four participants (52% female; mean 25.7 years-old (SD 5.0)) were recruited. BATT increased from Reclined to Sitting (+ 1.45 cm, 1.27-1.63), and after exercise (+ 0.51, 0.29-0.73). Echogenicity reduced from Reclined to Sitting (- 2.1, - 3.9 - -0.26). SMM-Sergi declined from Reclined to Supine (- 0.65 kg, - 1.08 - - 0.23) and after exercise (- 0.70 kg, - 1.27 - -0.14). ECW increased from Reclined to Sitting (+ 1.19 L, 0.04-2.35). There were no other statistically significant changes.
CONCLUSION: Standardisation of protocols is especially important for assessment of muscle quantity by ultrasonography; BIA measurements may also vary dependent on the equations used. Where possible, participants should be rested prior to muscle ultrasonography and BIA, and flexion of the knees should be avoided.
|Journal||BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation|
|Publication status||Published - 7 Jan 2021|
- Diagnostic imaging, Electric impedance, Muscles, Sarcopenia