Dynamic spray development of 2-methylfuran compared to ethanol and isooctane under ultra-high injection pressure

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  • University of Nottingham
  • Tsinghua University


Understanding spray behaviors is key for the successful employment of high injection pressure systems and biofuels such as 2-methylfuran (MF) and ethanol (ETH) in modern direct-injection gasoline engines. In this present work, the MF spray characteristics in the near-field (up to 1.6 mm) and far-field (up to 48 mm) were experimentally investigated under ultra-high injection pressure of 30, 40 and 50 MPa compared to those of ETH and isooctane (ISO). The effects of injection pressure and fuel properties on the spray morphology, tip penetration and cone angle development have been analyzed. The results showed that MF had a unique spray tip structure with a bubble attached to a mushroom tip at 30 and 40 MPa. The formation of this mushroom tip and bubble was closely related and strongly influenced by the Weber number. Among the three fuels tested, MF presented the lowest spray tip velocity at both near-field and far-field due to its large density. Compared to ETH, MF and ISO always had wider macro cone angles due to their lower viscosity.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-591
Number of pages11
Early online date17 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2018


  • 2-Methylfuran, Cavitation, Near nozzle, Primary breakup