Dynamic 3D culture: models of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification

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Dynamic 3D culture : models of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. / Foster, Nicola C; Henstock, James R; Reinwald, Yvonne; El Haj, Alicia J.

In: Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews, Vol. 105, No. 1, 16.03.2015, p. 19-33.

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Foster, Nicola C ; Henstock, James R ; Reinwald, Yvonne ; El Haj, Alicia J. / Dynamic 3D culture : models of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. In: Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews. 2015 ; Vol. 105, No. 1. pp. 19-33.

Bibtex

@article{de1f8a0b02ed45de8181b904f90f49e5,
title = "Dynamic 3D culture: models of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification",
abstract = "The formation of cartilage from stem cells during development is a complex process which is regulated by both local growth factors and biomechanical cues, and results in the differentiation of chondrocytes into a range of subtypes in specific regions of the tissue. In fetal development cartilage also acts as a precursor scaffold for many bones, and mineralization of this cartilaginous bone precursor occurs through the process of endochondral ossification. In the endochondral formation of bones during fetal development the interplay between cell signalling, growth factors, and biomechanics regulates the formation of load bearing bone, in addition to the joint capsule containing articular cartilage and synovium, generating complex, functional joints from a single precursor anlagen. These joint tissues are subsequently prone to degeneration in adult life and have poor regenerative capabilities, and so understanding how they are created during development may provide useful insights into therapies for diseases, such as osteoarthritis, and restoring bone and cartilage lost in adulthood. Of particular interest is how these tissues regenerate in the mechanically dynamic environment of a living joint, and so experiments performed using 3D models of cartilage development and endochondral ossification are proving insightful. In this review, we discuss some of the interesting models of cartilage development, such as the chick femur which can be observed in ovo, or isolated at a specific developmental stage and cultured organotypically in vitro. Biomaterial and hydrogel-based strategies which have emerged from regenerative medicine are also covered, allowing researchers to make informed choices on the characteristics of the materials used for both original research and clinical translation. In all of these models, we illustrate the essential importance of mechanical forces and mechanotransduction as a regulator of cell behavior and ultimate structural function in cartilage.",
keywords = "Biomechanical Phenomena, Cell Culture Techniques/methods, Chondrogenesis/physiology, Humans, Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods, Models, Biological, Osteogenesis/physiology, Regenerative Medicine/methods, mechanical load, 3D models, endochondral ossification",
author = "Foster, {Nicola C} and Henstock, {James R} and Yvonne Reinwald and {El Haj}, {Alicia J}",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.",
year = "2015",
month = mar,
day = "16",
doi = "10.1002/bdrc.21088",
language = "English",
volume = "105",
pages = "19--33",
journal = "Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews",
issn = "1542-975X",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dynamic 3D culture

T2 - models of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification

AU - Foster, Nicola C

AU - Henstock, James R

AU - Reinwald, Yvonne

AU - El Haj, Alicia J

N1 - © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PY - 2015/3/16

Y1 - 2015/3/16

N2 - The formation of cartilage from stem cells during development is a complex process which is regulated by both local growth factors and biomechanical cues, and results in the differentiation of chondrocytes into a range of subtypes in specific regions of the tissue. In fetal development cartilage also acts as a precursor scaffold for many bones, and mineralization of this cartilaginous bone precursor occurs through the process of endochondral ossification. In the endochondral formation of bones during fetal development the interplay between cell signalling, growth factors, and biomechanics regulates the formation of load bearing bone, in addition to the joint capsule containing articular cartilage and synovium, generating complex, functional joints from a single precursor anlagen. These joint tissues are subsequently prone to degeneration in adult life and have poor regenerative capabilities, and so understanding how they are created during development may provide useful insights into therapies for diseases, such as osteoarthritis, and restoring bone and cartilage lost in adulthood. Of particular interest is how these tissues regenerate in the mechanically dynamic environment of a living joint, and so experiments performed using 3D models of cartilage development and endochondral ossification are proving insightful. In this review, we discuss some of the interesting models of cartilage development, such as the chick femur which can be observed in ovo, or isolated at a specific developmental stage and cultured organotypically in vitro. Biomaterial and hydrogel-based strategies which have emerged from regenerative medicine are also covered, allowing researchers to make informed choices on the characteristics of the materials used for both original research and clinical translation. In all of these models, we illustrate the essential importance of mechanical forces and mechanotransduction as a regulator of cell behavior and ultimate structural function in cartilage.

AB - The formation of cartilage from stem cells during development is a complex process which is regulated by both local growth factors and biomechanical cues, and results in the differentiation of chondrocytes into a range of subtypes in specific regions of the tissue. In fetal development cartilage also acts as a precursor scaffold for many bones, and mineralization of this cartilaginous bone precursor occurs through the process of endochondral ossification. In the endochondral formation of bones during fetal development the interplay between cell signalling, growth factors, and biomechanics regulates the formation of load bearing bone, in addition to the joint capsule containing articular cartilage and synovium, generating complex, functional joints from a single precursor anlagen. These joint tissues are subsequently prone to degeneration in adult life and have poor regenerative capabilities, and so understanding how they are created during development may provide useful insights into therapies for diseases, such as osteoarthritis, and restoring bone and cartilage lost in adulthood. Of particular interest is how these tissues regenerate in the mechanically dynamic environment of a living joint, and so experiments performed using 3D models of cartilage development and endochondral ossification are proving insightful. In this review, we discuss some of the interesting models of cartilage development, such as the chick femur which can be observed in ovo, or isolated at a specific developmental stage and cultured organotypically in vitro. Biomaterial and hydrogel-based strategies which have emerged from regenerative medicine are also covered, allowing researchers to make informed choices on the characteristics of the materials used for both original research and clinical translation. In all of these models, we illustrate the essential importance of mechanical forces and mechanotransduction as a regulator of cell behavior and ultimate structural function in cartilage.

KW - Biomechanical Phenomena

KW - Cell Culture Techniques/methods

KW - Chondrogenesis/physiology

KW - Humans

KW - Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods

KW - Models, Biological

KW - Osteogenesis/physiology

KW - Regenerative Medicine/methods

KW - mechanical load

KW - 3D models

KW - endochondral ossification

U2 - 10.1002/bdrc.21088

DO - 10.1002/bdrc.21088

M3 - Review article

C2 - 25777047

VL - 105

SP - 19

EP - 33

JO - Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews

JF - Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews

SN - 1542-975X

IS - 1

ER -