Differential transcription factor occupancy but evolutionarily conserved chromatin features at the human and mouse M-CSF (CSF-1) receptor loci

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Colleges, School and Institutes


The c-FMS gene encodes the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR or CSF1-R), which is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor essential for macrophage development. We have previously characterized the chromatin features of the mouse gene; however, very little is known about chromatin structure and function of the human c-FMS locus. Here we present a side-by-side comparison of the chromatin structure, histone modification, transcription factor occupancy and cofactor recruitment of the human and the mouse c-FMS loci. We show that, similar to the mouse gene, the human c-FMS gene possesses a promoter and an intronic enhancer element (c-fms intronic regulatory element or FIRE). Both elements are evolutionarily conserved and specifically active in macrophages. However, we demonstrate by in vivo footprinting that both murine and human c-FMS cis-regulatory elements are recognised by an overlapping, but non-identical, set of transcription factors. Despite these differences, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show highly similar patterns of histone H3 modification and a similar distribution of chromatin modifying and remodelling activities at individual cis-regulatory elements and across the c-FMS locus. Our experiments support the hypothesis that the same regulatory principles operate at both genes via conserved cores of transcription factor binding sites.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5805-16
Number of pages12
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2003