Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • N. Karimian
  • J.w. Wilson
  • A.j. Peyton
  • W. Yin

Colleges, School and Institutes


Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B–H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-90
JournalJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Early online date16 Oct 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014


  • Electromagnetic property, Power station steel, Electromagnetic sensor, Hysteresis curve, Differential permeability