Development and usability testing of an electronic patient-reported outcome measure (ePROM) system for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Paul Cockwell
  • Mary Dutton
  • Natalie Walmsley-Allen
  • Ram Auti

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term medical condition associated with symptoms which may negatively impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures or questionnaires may be used to capture symptoms/HRQOL experienced by patients with advanced CKD.

Two PRO questionnaires were electronically adapted and incorporated in an electronic system developed at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHB), Birmingham. Usability testing was conducted with patients with advanced CKD. Qualitative methodology was used to elicit participants' views.

Participants had a mean age of 64.3 years (range: 36–87 years). All owned electronic devices and had access to the internet. The mean time required to complete the two electronic questionnaires was 15.9 min (range = 8–34 min). Patients who had difficulties with the system were those who had the least experience of using the internet and electronic devices. The average usability and satisfaction score was 4.6 (5-point scale).

Our study suggests that individuals with advanced CKD may find the Renal ePROM system acceptable and easy to use. The use of the Renal ePROM may complement clinician-reported outcomes and assist with the management of patients with advanced CKD.


Original languageEnglish
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Early online date16 Aug 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Aug 2018


  • Usability testing, User testing, eHealth, Electronic patient reported outcome measures, Electronic system, Chronic kidney disease, ePROM