Development and initial validation of a simple clinical decision tool to predict the presence of heart failure in primary care: the MICE (Male, Infarction, Crepitations, Edema) rule

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Jenny A Doust
  • Martin R Cowie
  • Paul Glasziou
  • David Mant
  • Jon Deeks
  • Robert N Doughty
  • Arno W Hoes
  • Kate Fletcher
  • Richard Hobbs

Colleges, School and Institutes


Diagnosis of heart failure in primary care is often inaccurate, and access to and use of echocardiography is suboptimal. This study aimed to develop and provisionally validate a clinical prediction rule to optimize referral for echocardiography of people identified in primary care with suspected heart failure.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1000-8
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2012