Detection and severity evaluation of combined rail defects using deep learning
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review
Colleges, School and Institutes
Various techniques have been developed to detect railway defects. One of the popular techniques is machine learning. This unprecedented study applies deep learning, which is a branch of machine learning techniques, to detect and evaluate the severity of rail combined defects. The combined defects in the study are settlement and dipped joint. Features used to detect and evaluate the severity of combined defects are axle box accelerations simulated using a verified rolling stock dynamic behavior simulation called D-Track. A total of 1650 simulations are run to generate numerical data. Deep learning techniques used in the study are deep neural network (DNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and recurrent neural network (RNN). Simulated data are used in two ways: simplified data and raw data. Simplified data are used to develop the DNN model, while raw data are used to develop the CNN and RNN model. For simplified data, features are extracted from raw data, which are the weight of rolling stock, the speed of rolling stock, and three peak and bottom accelerations from two wheels of rolling stock. In total, there are 14 features used as simplified data for developing the DNN model. For raw data, time-domain accelerations are used directly to develop the CNN and RNN models without processing and data extraction. Hyperparameter tuning is performed to ensure that the performance of each model is optimized. Grid search is used for performing hyperparameter tuning. To detect the combined defects, the study proposes two approaches. The first approach uses one model to detect settlement and dipped joint, and the second approach uses two models to detect settlement and dipped joint separately. The results show that the CNN models of both approaches provide the same accuracy of 99%, so one model is good enough to detect settlement and dipped joint. To evaluate the severity of the combined defects, the study applies classification and regression concepts. Classification is used to evaluate the severity by categorizing defects into light, medium, and severe classes, and regression is used to estimate the size of defects. From the study, the CNN model is suitable for evaluating dipped joint severity with an accuracy of 84% and mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.25 mm, and the RNN model is suitable for evaluating settlement severity with an accuracy of 99% and mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.58 mm.
Funding: This research was funded by the European Commission, grant number 691135. Acknowledgments: The authors also wish to thank the European Commission for the financial sponsorship of the H2020-RISE Project no.691135 “RISEN: Rail Infrastructure Systems Engineering Network”, which enables a global research network that addresses the grand challenge of railway infrastructure resilience and advanced sensing in extreme environments (www.risen2rail.eu, accessed on 21 January 2021) .
|Publication status||Published - 7 Apr 2021|
- deep learning, railway infrastructure, railway combined defects, dipped joint, settlement