Deoxygenation of Bio-oil from Calcium-Rich Paper-Mill Waste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • School of Chemical Engineering; University of Birmingham; Edgbaston Birmingham B15 2TT UK
  • Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental Safety and Energy Technology An der Maxhuette 1 92237 Sulzbach-Rosenberg Germany
  • Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg Schlossplatz 4 91054 Erlangen Germany


De-inking sludge, an ash-rich recycling paper solid waste, is generated in huge amounts. The catalytic deoxygenation potential of calcium-based de-inking sludge in co-pyrolysis mode with wood and its neat thermal conversion to sustainable biofuels are investigated. Wood, de-inking sludge, and their blends are processed in a thermocatalytic reforming (TCR) system. In the presence of de-inking sludge, the oxygen content in the organic phase decreases and the bio-oil calorific value improves as compared to the neat wood-derived bio-oil. The TCR processing of neat de-inking sludge produces a bio-oil with low oxygen content and higher calorific value.

Bibliographic note

Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Engineering and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Bio-oil, Biochar, De-inking sludge, Syngas, Thermocatalytic reforming