Deformation mechanisms in a metastable beta titanium twinning induced plasticity alloy with high yield strength and high strain hardening rate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Junheng Gao
  • Yuhe Huang
  • Dikai Guan
  • Le Ma
  • David Dye
  • W. Mark Rainforth

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Sheffield
  • Imperial College London


Metastable β titanium alloys with both twinning (TWIP) and martensite transformation (TRIP) usually exhibit a low yield strength of between 200 and 500 MPa, but high strain hardening rate and large uniform elongation. Alloys that exhibit twinning on a single system provide a higher yield strength, but a lower strain hardening rate. Here, for the first time, we report a new alloy (Ti-7Mo-3Cr wt%) with both high yield strength (695 MPa) and high work hardening rate (∼1900 MPa) and a substantial 33.3% uniform elongation. The deformation mechanisms were systematically investigated using EBSD and TEM for samples strained to 1.3%, 5% and 16%. The high yield strength was achieved through initial deformation mechanisms of two twin systems, namely both {332}<113> and {112}<111> twinning. Importantly, the martensite transformation was suppressed at this stage of deformation. The combination of two twin systems, with approximately the same intensity, resulted in a high strain hardening rate (1600 MPa–1900 MPa), much greater compared to alloys that exhibit a single twin system. Moreover, the TRIP effect was observed at strains greater than 5%, which also contributed to the high strain hardening rate large uniform elongation.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-314
Number of pages14
JournalActa Materialia
Early online date17 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018