Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies

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Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies. / Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Catoni, Marco; Prischi, Filippo; Paszkowski, Jerzy.

In: Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 45, No. 7, 20.04.2017, p. 3777-3784.

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Zabet, Nicolae Radu ; Catoni, Marco ; Prischi, Filippo ; Paszkowski, Jerzy. / Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies. In: Nucleic Acids Research. 2017 ; Vol. 45, No. 7. pp. 3777-3784.

Bibtex

@article{4e3c35db588c4e26986828429710bf8a,
title = "Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies",
abstract = "Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylase of lysine 9 of histone 3 (IBM1), a subset of body-methylated genes acquires non-CpG methylation. This was shown to alter their expression and affect plant development. It is not clear why only certain body-methylated genes gain non-CpG methylation in the absence of IBM1 and others do not. Here we describe a link between CpG methylation and the establishment of methylation in the CpHpG context that explains the two classes of body-methylated genes. We provide evidence that external cytosines of CpCpG sites can only be methylated when internal cytosines are methylated. CpCpG sites methylated in both cytosines promote spreading of methylation in the CpHpG context in genes protected by IBM1. In contrast, CpCpG sites remain unmethylated in IBM1-independent genes and do not promote spread of CpHpG methylation.",
keywords = "Arabidopsis/genetics, Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics, CpG Islands, Cytosine/metabolism, DNA Methylation, Epigenesis, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Genes, Plant, Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics",
author = "Zabet, {Nicolae Radu} and Marco Catoni and Filippo Prischi and Jerzy Paszkowski",
note = "{\textcopyright} The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.",
year = "2017",
month = apr,
day = "20",
doi = "10.1093/nar/gkw1330",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "3777--3784",
journal = "Nucleic Acids Research",
issn = "0305-1048",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "7",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies

AU - Zabet, Nicolae Radu

AU - Catoni, Marco

AU - Prischi, Filippo

AU - Paszkowski, Jerzy

N1 - © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

PY - 2017/4/20

Y1 - 2017/4/20

N2 - Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylase of lysine 9 of histone 3 (IBM1), a subset of body-methylated genes acquires non-CpG methylation. This was shown to alter their expression and affect plant development. It is not clear why only certain body-methylated genes gain non-CpG methylation in the absence of IBM1 and others do not. Here we describe a link between CpG methylation and the establishment of methylation in the CpHpG context that explains the two classes of body-methylated genes. We provide evidence that external cytosines of CpCpG sites can only be methylated when internal cytosines are methylated. CpCpG sites methylated in both cytosines promote spreading of methylation in the CpHpG context in genes protected by IBM1. In contrast, CpCpG sites remain unmethylated in IBM1-independent genes and do not promote spread of CpHpG methylation.

AB - Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylase of lysine 9 of histone 3 (IBM1), a subset of body-methylated genes acquires non-CpG methylation. This was shown to alter their expression and affect plant development. It is not clear why only certain body-methylated genes gain non-CpG methylation in the absence of IBM1 and others do not. Here we describe a link between CpG methylation and the establishment of methylation in the CpHpG context that explains the two classes of body-methylated genes. We provide evidence that external cytosines of CpCpG sites can only be methylated when internal cytosines are methylated. CpCpG sites methylated in both cytosines promote spreading of methylation in the CpHpG context in genes protected by IBM1. In contrast, CpCpG sites remain unmethylated in IBM1-independent genes and do not promote spread of CpHpG methylation.

KW - Arabidopsis/genetics

KW - Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics

KW - CpG Islands

KW - Cytosine/metabolism

KW - DNA Methylation

KW - Epigenesis, Genetic

KW - Gene Expression Regulation, Plant

KW - Genes, Plant

KW - Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics

U2 - 10.1093/nar/gkw1330

DO - 10.1093/nar/gkw1330

M3 - Article

C2 - 28053115

VL - 45

SP - 3777

EP - 3784

JO - Nucleic Acids Research

JF - Nucleic Acids Research

SN - 0305-1048

IS - 7

ER -