Crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation in the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Authors

  • Manel Prada
  • Louise Watremez
  • Chen Chen
  • Brian O'Reilly
  • Timothy Minshull
  • Patrick Shannon
  • Dirk Klaeschen
  • Gerlind Wagner
  • Viola Gaw

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies
  • University of Southampton
  • University College Dublin
  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre of Marine Research

Abstract

Mantle hydration (serpentinisation) at magma-poor rifted margins is thought to be key in controlling the kinematics of low-angle faults and thus, hyperextension and crustal breakup. However, because geophysical data principally provide observations of the final structure of the margin, little is known about the evolution of serpentinisation and how this governs tectonics during hyperextension. Here we present new observational evidence on how crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation influences hyperextension from rifting to possible crustal breakup along the axis of the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland. We present three new P-wave seismic velocity models that show the seismic structure of the uppermost lithosphere and the geometry of the Moho across and along the basin axis. We use neighbouring seismic reflection lines to our tomographic models to estimate crustal stretching (βc) of ~2.5 in the north at 52.5o N and > 10 in the south at 51.7o N. These values suggest that no crustal embrittlement occurred in the northernmost region, and that rifting has potentially reached crustal breakup in the southern part of the study area. We observed a decrease in mantle velocities across the basin axis from east to west. These variations occur in a region where βc is within the range at which crustal embrittlement and serpentinisation are possible (βc 3-4). Across the basin axis, the lowest seismic velocity in the mantle spatially coincides with the maximum amount of crustal faulting, indicating fault-controlled mantle hydration. Mantle velocities also suggest that the degree of serpentinisation, together with the amount of crustal faulting, increases southwards along the basin axis. Seismic reflection lines show a major detachment fault surface that grows southwards along the basin axis and is only visible where the inferred degree of serpentinisation is > 15 %. This is consistent with laboratory measurements that show that at this degree of serpentinisation, mantle rocks are sufficiently weak to allow low-angle normal faulting. Based on these results, we propose two alternative formation models for the Porcupine Basin. The first involves a northward propagation of the hyperextension processes, while the second model suggests higher extension rates in the centre of the basin than in the north. Both scenarios postulate that the amount of crustal strain determines the extent and degree of serpentinisation, which eventually controls the development of detachments faults with advanced stretching

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-159
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume474
Early online date13 Jul 2017
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2017

Keywords

  • Porcupine Basin , mantle serpentinisation , detachment faults , rifted margins , travel time tomography