Core Items for a Standardized Resource Use Measure (ISRUM): Expert Delphi Consensus Survey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Joanna C. Thorn
  • Sara T. Brookes
  • Colin Ridyard
  • Dyfrig A. Hughes
  • Sarah Wordsworth
  • Sian M. Noble
  • Gail Thornton
  • William Hollingworth

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Bristol
  • Bangor University
  • Oxford University


Background: Resource use measurement by patient recall is characterized by inconsistent methods and a lack of validation. A validated standardized resource use measure could increase data quality, improve comparability between studies, and reduce research burden. Objectives: To identify a minimum set of core resource use items that should be included in a standardized adult instrument for UK health economic evaluation from a provider perspective. Methods: Health economists with experience of UK-based economic evaluations were recruited to participate in an electronic Delphi survey. Respondents were asked to rate 60 resource use items (e.g., medication names) on a scale of 1 to 9 according to the importance of the item in a generic context. Items considered less important according to predefined consensus criteria were dropped and a second survey was developed. In the second round, respondents received the median score and their own score from round 1 for each item alongside summarized comments and were asked to rerate items. A final project team meeting was held to determine the recommended core set. Results: Forty-five participants completed round 1. Twenty-six items were considered less important and were dropped, 34 items were retained for the second round, and no new items were added. Forty-two respondents (93.3%) completed round 2, and greater consensus was observed. After the final meeting, 10 core items were selected, with further items identified as suitable for "bolt-on" questionnaire modules. Conclusions: The consensus on 10 items considered important in a generic context suggests that a standardized instrument for core resource use items is feasible.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-649
JournalValue in Health
Issue number6
Early online date1 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018


  • Cost measurement, Patient-reported, Randomized clinical trial, Resource use