Comparison of immediate and long-term outcomes in men and women undergoing revascularisation for chronic limb threatening ischaemia (CLTI) in the Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Leg (BASIL-1) trial

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The reports from cohort studies comparing outcomes after revascularisation for chronic limb threatening ischaemia (CLTI) between men and women remains controversial. Anatomical and clinical disease severity is often heterogeneous, and treatment choice influenced by a variety of clinician and patient factors. Our aim was to compare outcomes in men and women entered into the only randomised study comparing bypass and angioplasty for infra-inguinal disease causing severe limb ischaemia.

Methods: Data were obtained from BASIL-1 trial case record forms. Baseline demographics were compared, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the relationship between sex and amputation free survival (AFS), overall survival (OS), and freedom from major adverse limb events (FF-MALE) using a per-protocol analysis. Data was analysed using a per-protocol analysis.

Results: 452 patients were randomized into the BASIL-1 from 1999-2004. At randomisation, women were older and less likely to be smokers, to have diabetes, or to be on recommended best medical therapy. Men were more likely to present with gangrene. Ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), post-revascularisation length of hospital stay, and 30-day morbidity and mortality were similar for men and women. At 3 years, female sex was associated with significantly better AFS (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.89, p=<0.01), OS (HR 0.66 95% CI 0.46-0.95, p=0.02) and FF-MALE (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, p=0.02).

Conclusion: In the BASIL-1 trial, women had similar short-term, but better long-term outcomes after revascularisation. Sex is an important consideration when developing early, evidence-based treatment pathway and revascularisation strategies for CLTI, and is an independent risk factor for outcomes following revascularisation as well as development of symptomatic PAD.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-228
JournalEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Issue number2
Early online date12 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • Critical limb ischaemia, Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia, Peripheral vascular disease, Infrainguinal bypass, Angioplasty, Sex

Sustainable Development Goals