Cardiovascular changes under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the air-breathing teleost Synbranchus marmoratus: importance of the venous system

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • M Skals
  • N Skovgaard
  • CAC Leite
  • Augusto Abe

Colleges, School and Institutes


Synbranchus marmoratus is a facultative air-breathing fish, which uses its buccal cavity as well as its gills for air-breathing. S. marmoratus shows a very pronounced tachycardia when it surfaces to air-breathe. An elevation of heart rate decreases cardiac filling time and therefore may cause a decline in stroke volume (V(S)), but this can be compensated for by an increase in venous tone to maintain stroke volume. Thus, the study on S. marmoratus was undertaken to investigate how stroke volume and venous function are affected during air-breathing. To this end we measured cardiac output (Q), heart rate (f(H)), central venous blood pressure (P(CV)), mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP), and dorsal aortic blood pressures (P(DA)) in S. marmoratus. Measurements were performed in aerated water (P(O2)>130 mmHg), when the fish alternated between gill ventilation and prolonged periods of apnoeas, as well as during hypoxia (P(O2)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4167-4173
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2006


  • cardiac filling, Synbranchus marmoratus, normoxia, venous tone, venous return, stroke volume, hypoxia, mean circulatory filling pressure, air-breathing fish, adrenergic regulation