Avoidance of Harm From Treatment for ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

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Avoidance of Harm From Treatment for ANCA-Associated Vasculitis. / King, Catherine; Harper, Lorraine.

In: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 12.2017, p. 230-243.

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@article{755b9d43607649149bd26399893adc68,
title = "Avoidance of Harm From Treatment for ANCA-Associated Vasculitis",
abstract = "Purpose of review With established immunosuppressant treatment regimens for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV), prognosis has significantly improved. The mainstay of treatment still comprises high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for severe forms, although rituximab is being increasingly utilised instead of cyclophosphamide as induction therapy. AAV patients experience an excess of infections, malignancies and cardiovascular events as compared to the general population, which is a combination of the systemic inflammatory process associated with vasculitis and the adverse events from treatment. Recent findings Successful therapy should focus on suppressing disease activity and minimising treatment-related toxicity. Infection is the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the first year of treatment, and annual pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and tuberculosis (TB) and Hepatitis B virus screening are advised. Patients on high-dose corticosteroid treatment should have regular blood sugar monitoring, a FRAX assessment with vitamin D and calcium supplementation, consideration of prophylaxis for gastric ulcers and a cardiovascular risk assessment. Patients who are treated with cyclophosphamide could also receive MESNA to reduce the risk of chemical cystitis. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and azathioprine all require blood monitoring schedules due to the risk of bone marrow suppression, liver and renal toxicity. Hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognised risk of rituximab treatment. Patients of reproductive age need to be counselled on the infertility risks with cyclophosphamide and the teratogenicity associated with it, methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil. Summary A greater focus on identifying clinical and biological markers that will help identify those patients at greatest risk of relapse, e.g. GPA and PR3-ANCA specificity, from those patients at greatest risk of toxicity, e.g. increasing age and declining GFR, is required to allow treatment to be tailored accordingly.",
keywords = "anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antiibody-associated vasculitides (AAV) , adverse events , cyclophosphamide , rituximab",
author = "Catherine King and Lorraine Harper",
year = "2017",
month = dec,
doi = "10.1007/s40674-017-0082-y",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "230--243",
journal = "Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology",
issn = "2198-6002",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Avoidance of Harm From Treatment for ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

AU - King, Catherine

AU - Harper, Lorraine

PY - 2017/12

Y1 - 2017/12

N2 - Purpose of review With established immunosuppressant treatment regimens for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV), prognosis has significantly improved. The mainstay of treatment still comprises high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for severe forms, although rituximab is being increasingly utilised instead of cyclophosphamide as induction therapy. AAV patients experience an excess of infections, malignancies and cardiovascular events as compared to the general population, which is a combination of the systemic inflammatory process associated with vasculitis and the adverse events from treatment. Recent findings Successful therapy should focus on suppressing disease activity and minimising treatment-related toxicity. Infection is the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the first year of treatment, and annual pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and tuberculosis (TB) and Hepatitis B virus screening are advised. Patients on high-dose corticosteroid treatment should have regular blood sugar monitoring, a FRAX assessment with vitamin D and calcium supplementation, consideration of prophylaxis for gastric ulcers and a cardiovascular risk assessment. Patients who are treated with cyclophosphamide could also receive MESNA to reduce the risk of chemical cystitis. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and azathioprine all require blood monitoring schedules due to the risk of bone marrow suppression, liver and renal toxicity. Hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognised risk of rituximab treatment. Patients of reproductive age need to be counselled on the infertility risks with cyclophosphamide and the teratogenicity associated with it, methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil. Summary A greater focus on identifying clinical and biological markers that will help identify those patients at greatest risk of relapse, e.g. GPA and PR3-ANCA specificity, from those patients at greatest risk of toxicity, e.g. increasing age and declining GFR, is required to allow treatment to be tailored accordingly.

AB - Purpose of review With established immunosuppressant treatment regimens for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV), prognosis has significantly improved. The mainstay of treatment still comprises high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for severe forms, although rituximab is being increasingly utilised instead of cyclophosphamide as induction therapy. AAV patients experience an excess of infections, malignancies and cardiovascular events as compared to the general population, which is a combination of the systemic inflammatory process associated with vasculitis and the adverse events from treatment. Recent findings Successful therapy should focus on suppressing disease activity and minimising treatment-related toxicity. Infection is the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the first year of treatment, and annual pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and tuberculosis (TB) and Hepatitis B virus screening are advised. Patients on high-dose corticosteroid treatment should have regular blood sugar monitoring, a FRAX assessment with vitamin D and calcium supplementation, consideration of prophylaxis for gastric ulcers and a cardiovascular risk assessment. Patients who are treated with cyclophosphamide could also receive MESNA to reduce the risk of chemical cystitis. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and azathioprine all require blood monitoring schedules due to the risk of bone marrow suppression, liver and renal toxicity. Hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognised risk of rituximab treatment. Patients of reproductive age need to be counselled on the infertility risks with cyclophosphamide and the teratogenicity associated with it, methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil. Summary A greater focus on identifying clinical and biological markers that will help identify those patients at greatest risk of relapse, e.g. GPA and PR3-ANCA specificity, from those patients at greatest risk of toxicity, e.g. increasing age and declining GFR, is required to allow treatment to be tailored accordingly.

KW - anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antiibody-associated vasculitides (AAV)

KW - adverse events

KW - cyclophosphamide

KW - rituximab

U2 - 10.1007/s40674-017-0082-y

DO - 10.1007/s40674-017-0082-y

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29201630

VL - 3

SP - 230

EP - 243

JO - Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology

JF - Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology

SN - 2198-6002

IS - 4

ER -