Association of guideline and policy changes with incidence of lifestyle advice and treatment for uncomplicated mild hypertension in Primary Care: a longitudinal cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • James P. Sheppard
  • Sarah Stevens
  • Richard Stevens
  • Jonathan Mant
  • Richard Hobbs
  • Richard J. McManus

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge


Objectives: Evidence to support initiation of pharmacological treatment in patients with uncomplicated (low risk) mild hypertension is inconclusive. As such, clinical guidelines are contradictory and healthcare policy has changed regularly. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of lifestyle advice and drug therapy in this population and whether secular trends were associated with policy changes.

Design: Longitudinal cohort study.

Setting: Primary Care practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England.

Participants: Data were extracted from the linked electronic health records of patients aged 18-74 years, with stage 1 hypertension (blood pressure between 140/90-159/99mmHg), no cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and no treatment, from 1998-2015. Patients exited if follow-up records became unavailable, they progressed to stage 2 hypertension, developed a CVD risk factor or received lifestyle advice/treatment.

Primary outcome measures: The association between policy changes and incidence of lifestyle advice or treatment, examined using an interrupted time series analysis.

Results: A total of 108,843 patients were defined as having uncomplicated mild hypertension (mean age 51.9±12.9 years, 60.0% female). Patients were in the study spent for a median 2.6 years (IQR 0.9, 5.5), after which 12.2% (95%CI 12.0%-12.4%) were given lifestyle advice, 29.9% (95%CI 29.7%-30.2%) were prescribed medication and 19.4% (95%CI 19.2%-19.6%) were given both. The introduction of the Quality Outcomes Framework (QOF) and subsequent changes to QOF indicators were followed by significant increases in the incidence of lifestyle advice. Treatment prescriptions decreased slightly over time, but were not associated with policy changes.

Conclusions: Despite secular trends that accord with UK guidance, many patients are still prescribed treatment for mild hypertension. Adequately powered studies are needed to determine if this is appropriate.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere021827
JournalBMJ open
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2018


  • blood pressure, interrupted time series, electronic health records, cardiovascular disease prevention, general practice