Assessment of recovery and recrystallization behaviours of cold rolled IF steel through non-destructive electromagnetic characterization

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Rajat Roy
  • Siuli Dutta
  • Ashis Panda
  • V Rajinikath
  • Swapan Das
  • Amitava Mitra

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • The University of Warwick
  • National Metallurgical Laboratory


The recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of cold rolled IF steel have been investigated by destructive (optical microscopy and hardness) and non-destructive electromagnetic sensor, (which allows direct measurement of strip samples with no surface preparation) techniques. The onset and completion of recrystallisation are clearly monitored through destructive techniques of optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The nucleation of new recrystallised grains is observed in the sample annealed at 600 °C/15 min, while completion of recrystallisation takes place at 700 °C/15 min. The destructive techniques are not very accurate in monitoring recovery, for example, changes in hardness of <20% are seen. In contrast, the magnetic properties of annealed steel show the onsets of both recovery and recrystallisation, with recovery accounting for ≈60% change in the coercivity value. Therefore, the measurement of magnetic softening through an electromagnetic sensor acts a crucial role for understanding recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of steels during industrial processing. The present investigation is aimed not only for controlling product quality but also saving characterisation time through off line monitoring during steel processing at industry.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1933-1944
Number of pages12
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number21
Early online date1 May 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 May 2018


  • hardness , microstructure , recrystallization , magnetic properties , electron microscopy