Assessing the Economic Risk of Building Damage Due to the Tunneling-Induced Settlement Using Monte Carlo Simulations and BIM

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Due to the increasing use of underground space to align with sustainability needs, geohazard risk assessments have become a valuable tool for decision-making. One common issue in relation to urban geohazard assessments relates to ground movements due to tunneling affecting adjacent buildings. A framework for assessing costs related to subsequent building damage, using integrated data, statistics and considering the uncertainties involved, is presented in this paper. The proposed methodology provides an integration of Monte Carlo simulations to support uncertainty estimations with an analysis for building-damage cost risk due to tunneling-induced settlements. The analysis involves analytical models using green-field conditions and a typically used building damage assessment method. BIM is capable of collating, combining and visualizing information with advanced analysis techniques into a risk-based tool. The resulting tool provides a clear way of assessing building-damage costs risk due to tunneling-induced settlements. This uses a BIM-based environment and incorporates 3D visualizations and an integrated analysis via MATLAB to reveal and highlight hazardous areas and the severity of economic risk along the tunneling route. This informs the need for additional ground investigations or secondary analyses to ensure engineering processes reduce or remove the risk of economic damage and advance sustainable decision-making.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council via grants EP/K021699 (Assessing The Underworld), EP/N010523 (Self-Repairing Cities) and EP/P013635 (UKCRIC-National Buried Infrastructure Facility).


Original languageEnglish
Article number10034
Number of pages19
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • BIM, Building damage costs, Settlement economic risk, Tunneling, Uncertainty