Antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen of HIV-infected men: differential penetration of indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • DJ Back
  • Susan Drake
  • Judith Workman
  • H Reynolds
  • SE Gibbons
  • David White
  • Deenan Pillay

Colleges, School and Institutes


Variable drug penetration of antiretroviral drugs into the genital tract may contribute to the differential evolution of HIV and the emergence of drug resistance. This, in turn, may have an impact on the sexual transmission of resistant HIV in patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. We have measured concentrations of the HIV-1 protease inhibitors indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in the blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) of 23 HIV-1-positive men. Forty-five time-matched blood and semen samples were obtained. SP concentrations of indinavir exceeded the EC95 of indinavir, corrected for protein binding, of 42 ng/mL at all time intervals. In contrast, the median ritonavir and saquinavir SP concentrations were below the relevant EC95 at all times post drug ingestion. The median SP:BP concentration ratios for indinavir were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.4, respectively, at 0-2, 2-6 and 6-8 h post-drug ingestion. In contrast, the median SP:BP concentration ratios at 0-3, 3-9 and 9-12 h post-drug ingestion were


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-54
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2001