An investigation of the influence of process and formulation variables on mechanical properties of high shear granules using design of experiment

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Being able to predict the properties of granules from the knowledge of the process and formulation variables is what most industries are striving for. This research uses experimental design to investigate the effect of process variables and formulation variables on mechanical properties of pharmaceutical granules manufactured from a classical blend of lactose and starch using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the binder. The process parameters investigated were granulation time and impeller speed whilst the formulation variables were starch-to-lactose ratio and HPC concentration. The granule properties investigated include granule packing coefficient and granule strength. The effect of some components of the formulation on mechanical properties would also depend on the process variables used in granulation process. This implies that by subjecting the same formulation to different process conditions results in products with different properties. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-336
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012


  • Elastoplastic ratio, Granulation, Strength, Packing coefficient, Experimental design