An investigation into six coal fly ashes from the United Kingdom and Poland to evaluate rare earth element content

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes


Rare earth elements have been identified by the European Commission as a critical raw material. Six European coal fly ashes have been investigated for their rare earth element content. A coal fly ash from the UK has levels of rare earth element that are approaching that which might be commercially viable to exploit. After classification there was found to be a slight enrichment in the smaller non-magnetic inorganic content of the coal fly ash.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-239
Early online date4 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2014


  • Rare earth elements, Coal fly ash, Utilisation