Alkanes and Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds in Wintertime PM2.5 in Beijing, China

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Alkanes and Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds in Wintertime PM2.5 in Beijing, China. / Lyu, Ruihe; Shi, Zongbo; Alam, Mohammed; Wu, Xuefang; Liu, Di; VU, Van Tuan; Stark, Christopher; Xu, Ruixin; Fu, Pingqing; Feng, Yinchang; Harrison, Roy.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 202, 01.04.2019, p. 244-255.

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Lyu, Ruihe ; Shi, Zongbo ; Alam, Mohammed ; Wu, Xuefang ; Liu, Di ; VU, Van Tuan ; Stark, Christopher ; Xu, Ruixin ; Fu, Pingqing ; Feng, Yinchang ; Harrison, Roy. / Alkanes and Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds in Wintertime PM2.5 in Beijing, China. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2019 ; Vol. 202. pp. 244-255.

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@article{570ea75b2f0742d99c0a0d47b8090a99,
title = "Alkanes and Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds in Wintertime PM2.5 in Beijing, China",
abstract = "Organic aerosol is one of the dominant components of PM2.5 in megacities. In order to understand the sources and formation processes of aliphatic carbonyl compounds, the concentrations of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds were determined in the PM2.5 from an urban area of Beijing sampled in November–December 2016 and analysed using two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). The data were separated into non-haze and haze days (PM2.5≥75 μgm−3). n-Alkanes (C10-C36) and n-alkenes (C12-C26) were abundant in the samples during the sampling campaign regardless of non-haze and haze conditions, and the middle chain length n–alkanes (C25–C34)were the most abundant. Aliphatic carbonyls, specifically n-alkanals (C8-C29), n-alkan-2-ones (C8-C31) and nalkan-3-ones (C8-C30) were also detected in the PM2.5 at concentrations much lower than n-alkanes. The nalkanalswere the most abundant compounds amongst the aliphatic carbonyls, accounting for 65.4% on average of the total mass of aliphatic carbonyls. For the non-haze days, it seems likely that the OH oxidation of n-alkanes was a source of carbonyl compounds, whereas vehicle exhaust makes a significant contribution to the n-alkanes and n-alkanals, but makes a much smaller contribution to the n-alkan-2-ones and n-alkan-3-ones. It appears thatprimary sources are likely to be a major contributor to concentrations of the high molecular weight carbonyl compounds during the haze episodes, probably deriving from coal combustion. In addition, furanones (γ-lactones)and phytone (6, 10, 14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one) were also detected in our samples and are oxidation products of hydrocarbons and a marker of biogenic input, respectively. Cooking emissions also appear to be a likely contributor to the furanones. This study provides new information on the profiles of PM2.5 associated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds, and gives insights into their sources. Differences in the concentrations and ratios of carbonyl compounds between Beijing and London are discussed.",
keywords = "Aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, n-alkenes, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkan-3-ones, organic aerosol",
author = "Ruihe Lyu and Zongbo Shi and Mohammed Alam and Xuefang Wu and Di Liu and VU, {Van Tuan} and Christopher Stark and Ruixin Xu and Pingqing Fu and Yinchang Feng and Roy Harrison",
year = "2019",
month = apr
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.023",
language = "English",
volume = "202",
pages = "244--255",
journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
issn = "1352-2310",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alkanes and Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds in Wintertime PM2.5 in Beijing, China

AU - Lyu, Ruihe

AU - Shi, Zongbo

AU - Alam, Mohammed

AU - Wu, Xuefang

AU - Liu, Di

AU - VU, Van Tuan

AU - Stark, Christopher

AU - Xu, Ruixin

AU - Fu, Pingqing

AU - Feng, Yinchang

AU - Harrison, Roy

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - Organic aerosol is one of the dominant components of PM2.5 in megacities. In order to understand the sources and formation processes of aliphatic carbonyl compounds, the concentrations of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds were determined in the PM2.5 from an urban area of Beijing sampled in November–December 2016 and analysed using two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). The data were separated into non-haze and haze days (PM2.5≥75 μgm−3). n-Alkanes (C10-C36) and n-alkenes (C12-C26) were abundant in the samples during the sampling campaign regardless of non-haze and haze conditions, and the middle chain length n–alkanes (C25–C34)were the most abundant. Aliphatic carbonyls, specifically n-alkanals (C8-C29), n-alkan-2-ones (C8-C31) and nalkan-3-ones (C8-C30) were also detected in the PM2.5 at concentrations much lower than n-alkanes. The nalkanalswere the most abundant compounds amongst the aliphatic carbonyls, accounting for 65.4% on average of the total mass of aliphatic carbonyls. For the non-haze days, it seems likely that the OH oxidation of n-alkanes was a source of carbonyl compounds, whereas vehicle exhaust makes a significant contribution to the n-alkanes and n-alkanals, but makes a much smaller contribution to the n-alkan-2-ones and n-alkan-3-ones. It appears thatprimary sources are likely to be a major contributor to concentrations of the high molecular weight carbonyl compounds during the haze episodes, probably deriving from coal combustion. In addition, furanones (γ-lactones)and phytone (6, 10, 14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one) were also detected in our samples and are oxidation products of hydrocarbons and a marker of biogenic input, respectively. Cooking emissions also appear to be a likely contributor to the furanones. This study provides new information on the profiles of PM2.5 associated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds, and gives insights into their sources. Differences in the concentrations and ratios of carbonyl compounds between Beijing and London are discussed.

AB - Organic aerosol is one of the dominant components of PM2.5 in megacities. In order to understand the sources and formation processes of aliphatic carbonyl compounds, the concentrations of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds were determined in the PM2.5 from an urban area of Beijing sampled in November–December 2016 and analysed using two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). The data were separated into non-haze and haze days (PM2.5≥75 μgm−3). n-Alkanes (C10-C36) and n-alkenes (C12-C26) were abundant in the samples during the sampling campaign regardless of non-haze and haze conditions, and the middle chain length n–alkanes (C25–C34)were the most abundant. Aliphatic carbonyls, specifically n-alkanals (C8-C29), n-alkan-2-ones (C8-C31) and nalkan-3-ones (C8-C30) were also detected in the PM2.5 at concentrations much lower than n-alkanes. The nalkanalswere the most abundant compounds amongst the aliphatic carbonyls, accounting for 65.4% on average of the total mass of aliphatic carbonyls. For the non-haze days, it seems likely that the OH oxidation of n-alkanes was a source of carbonyl compounds, whereas vehicle exhaust makes a significant contribution to the n-alkanes and n-alkanals, but makes a much smaller contribution to the n-alkan-2-ones and n-alkan-3-ones. It appears thatprimary sources are likely to be a major contributor to concentrations of the high molecular weight carbonyl compounds during the haze episodes, probably deriving from coal combustion. In addition, furanones (γ-lactones)and phytone (6, 10, 14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one) were also detected in our samples and are oxidation products of hydrocarbons and a marker of biogenic input, respectively. Cooking emissions also appear to be a likely contributor to the furanones. This study provides new information on the profiles of PM2.5 associated aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds, and gives insights into their sources. Differences in the concentrations and ratios of carbonyl compounds between Beijing and London are discussed.

KW - Aliphatic hydrocarbons

KW - n-alkanes

KW - n-alkenes

KW - n-alkanals

KW - n-alkan-2-ones

KW - n-alkan-3-ones

KW - organic aerosol

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.023

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.023

M3 - Article

VL - 202

SP - 244

EP - 255

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

ER -